*Brian K. Ridley*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- April 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198788362
- eISBN:
- 9780191830280
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788362.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial ...
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Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces the hybridization of longitudinally and transversely polarized modes, along with, in polar material, electromagnetic modes. Hybrid acoustic and optical modes are described, with an emphasis on polar-optical phonons and their interaction with electrons. Scattering rates in single heterostructures, quantum wells, and quantum wires are described and the anharmonic interaction in quantum dots is discussed. A description is given of the effects of dynamic screening of hybrid polar modes and the production of hot phonons. The book is structured into three parts: basics, hybrid modes, and the electron-phonon interaction.Less

Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces the hybridization of longitudinally and transversely polarized modes, along with, in polar material, electromagnetic modes. Hybrid acoustic and optical modes are described, with an emphasis on polar-optical phonons and their interaction with electrons. Scattering rates in single heterostructures, quantum wells, and quantum wires are described and the anharmonic interaction in quantum dots is discussed. A description is given of the effects of dynamic screening of hybrid polar modes and the production of hot phonons. The book is structured into three parts: basics, hybrid modes, and the electron-phonon interaction.

*John Weiner and Frederico Nunes*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198796664
- eISBN:
- 9780191837920
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796664.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over ...
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Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (1015 s–1) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the macroscopic expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these length scales. Circuit theory and waveguide theory from electrical engineering can provide surprising analogies and often offer important insights into the nature of these interactions. In addition to the subjects presented in the first edition, the second edition treats light transmission in metamaterials, optical field momentum flow between fields and matter, energy flow and atom-optical forces applied to atomic and molecular cooling and trapping. This book deploys an arsenal of powerful analytical tools to render this multidisciplinary subject in a novel form, not encountered in standard physics or electrical engineering text books.Less

Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (10^{15} s^{–1}) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the *macroscopic* expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these length scales. Circuit theory and waveguide theory from electrical engineering can provide surprising analogies and often offer important insights into the nature of these interactions. In addition to the subjects presented in the first edition, the second edition treats *light transmission in metamaterials*, optical field *momentum flow between fields and matter*, energy flow and *atom-optical forces* applied to atomic and molecular cooling and trapping. This book deploys an arsenal of powerful analytical tools to render this multidisciplinary subject in a novel form, not encountered in standard physics or electrical engineering text books.

*William J. Mullin*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198795131
- eISBN:
- 9780191836480
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795131.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

The predictions of quantum mechanics and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever probing it in any way, via ...
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The predictions of quantum mechanics and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever probing it in any way, via “interaction-free measurement,” the ability of a particle to tunnel through an energetically forbidden region, or teleportation of an atom. Quantum mechanics often seems downright bizarre, which is why it can be described as having “quantum weirdness.” The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves and then introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, including the wave function, superposition, entanglement, Bell’s theorem, the four forces, matter waves, bosons, fermions, etc., and applications to effects such as Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum computing, and much more. It also discusses the various world views that have been proposed to understand what the mathematics of quantum mechanics means. This includes some very recent advances, for example, quantum Bayesianism and measurements of the reality of the wave function. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that involves some complicated mathematics—calculus, partial differential equations, the theory of Hilbert spaces, etc.—for complete understanding. In order to give a deeper grasp of quantum mechanics than most texts for a general audience, this book treats the subject mathematically, but only at the level of high-school algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn much about this fundamental science of all nature. An appendix covers some useful background in classical physics, such as momentum and energy.Less

The predictions of quantum mechanics and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever probing it in any way, via “interaction-free measurement,” the ability of a particle to tunnel through an energetically forbidden region, or teleportation of an atom. Quantum mechanics often seems downright bizarre, which is why it can be described as having “quantum weirdness.” The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves and then introduces the fundamentals of quantum mechanics, including the wave function, superposition, entanglement, Bell’s theorem, the four forces, matter waves, bosons, fermions, etc., and applications to effects such as Bose–Einstein condensation, quantum computing, and much more. It also discusses the various world views that have been proposed to understand what the mathematics of quantum mechanics means. This includes some very recent advances, for example, quantum Bayesianism and measurements of the reality of the wave function. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that involves some complicated mathematics—calculus, partial differential equations, the theory of Hilbert spaces, etc.—for complete understanding. In order to give a deeper grasp of quantum mechanics than most texts for a general audience, this book treats the subject mathematically, but only at the level of high-school algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn much about this fundamental science of all nature. An appendix covers some useful background in classical physics, such as momentum and energy.

*Claudio Chamon, Mark O. Goerbig, Roderich Moessner, and Leticia F. Cugliandolo (eds)*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198785781
- eISBN:
- 9780191827600
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785781.001.0001
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance ...
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Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (Part II) covering individual topics at the forefront of today’s research in condensed matter physics.Less

Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (Part II) covering individual topics at the forefront of today’s research in condensed matter physics.