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Mark L. Latash

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195333169

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.001.0001

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Zoo of Motor Synergies

Zoo of Motor Synergies

(p.167) Part Five Zoo of Motor Synergies

Mark L. Latash (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The fifth part of this book overviews a large number of synergies that have been studied. It starts with a review of kinematic synergies during such actions as quiet standing, sit-to-stand action, reaching, multi-joint poiting, and even quick-draw pistol shooting. Another Digression is presented on optimization methods in motor control. Further, kinetic synergies are discussed, in particular those involved in multi-digit action of the human hand. Such issues as the emergence and disappearance of synergies and the role of timing errors in synergy indices are touched upon. Later, the phenomenon of anticipatory synergy adjustments is introduced as a method of turning off unwanted synergies in preparation to a quick action. Synergies in prehensile tasks are discussed with particular attention paid to phenomena of chain effects and the principle of superposition in human hand action. The last portion of this Part deals with multi-muscle synergies involved in whole-body tasks performed by a standing person such as swaying the body, manipulating external objects, and making a step.

Keywords:   movement kinematics, posture, reaching, sit-to-stand, optimization, prehension, anticipatory synergy adjustments, hierarchical control, chain effects, step initation

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