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How Change Happens$

Duncan Green

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198785392

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785392.001.0001

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(p.259) Index

How Change Happens
Oxford University Press

Note: Figures and notes are indicated by an italic f and n following the page number.

importance of134
initiatives130–3, 132f
meaning of112–13
and the media126–30
and change177–8, 257–8
and climate change173
and empathy34–5
and food217
and government228
and insiders vs. outsider tactics229–31
and international systems135–6, 147–9
at national level148–9
and a power and systems approach246–50
and social norms54–6
and systems thinking236
activists as change agents2–3
Adjustment with a Human Face (UNICEF)143
coalitions and alliances228–9
and critical junctures226–7
and insiders vs. outsider tactics229–31
power of212–15, 231–2
process of215–21
and systems thinking222–6, 229–31
female genital mutilation (FGM)62–5
gay rights activism61
human rights law109–10
hybrid schools93–4
political parties120–1
rights-based approaches109–10
role of faith59
role of states80–1
telecommunications companies155
Twaweza (NGO)131–3
African Union201
African Union’s Women’s Protocol (2003)62
aid and aid agencies
lack of leadership investment210–11
and power36–7
reform of states financed by92–4
supporting citizen activism192–5
alliances40, 72, 228–9
Amnesty International140, 216–17
Arab Spring87, 208
Argentina25, 80, 94
Peronist party115, 119
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)140–1, 225
Asia Foundation, The23
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank138
Asian Tigers89
and the evolution of states87
Financial Crisis (1998)144
transnational corporations154–5
We Can campaign33–4, 37, 53
fire and building safety18–19
garment industry51, 151–2
opportunities from crises18–19
use of legal system99
women’s empowerment51
(p.260) Benn, Hilary215
Blueprint for Revolution (Popovic)217
Chiquitano Indigenous Organization (OICH)70, 71
Chiquitanos47–8, 69–73
Movement to Socialism (MAS) party115, 116, 189
political parties189
social movements47–8, 189
women in parliament121
Bosnia138, 192
BP Deepwater Horizon disaster228–9
brands167, 248
Bolsa Familia social welfare programme189–90
children’s rights108
civil society organizations189–90
foreign direct investment162
political parties119, 189
social movements189
transnational corporations156
women-only police stations in102
Workers Party (PT)115, 116–18, 189
Bretton Woods Institutions137, 139–40, 142–3
BRIC countries144
Britain see United Kingdom
Brown, Gordon148, 212–13, 214
Burkina Faso186
Bury the Chains (Hochschild)76
business associations161–2
Cambodia122, 140
arms control140–1
Behind the Brands168
and corporate behaviour168
and developing countries224–5
to end slavery214–15
Jubilee 2000 debt34–5, 230–1
Make Poverty History2, 222–4
Treatment Action163
We Can33–4, 37, 53, 226
capacity building214
Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD)57, 212–13, 248
celebrities and advocacy217
Center for Global Development253
Centuries of Childhood (Aries)49–50
Chandler, (Sir) Geoffrey216–17
Chang, Ha-Joon14–16, 76–7, 80, 89, 143
and activism177–8, 257–8
bringing about major norm65–7
categories of analysis of4–6
in complex systems16–19
driven by transnational corporations157–9, 164–7
initiatives for132–3, 132f
law as a driver of98–102
political parties as drivers of113–18, 125–6
and power32–7
processes framework241–2, 242f
resistance to41–4
strategies91–2, 243–5, 244f
theories of235–9, 239–46
unpredictability of9, 11–13
worldviews on3
change agents2–3, 72
change theories see theories of change
children49–50, 107–8
Chile80, 89
advance of145
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)141
climate change172, 174
Communist Party123
as the first state83, 85
foreign direct investment162
as a strong state85
transnational corporations155–7
Chiquitanos of Bolivia47–8
case study69–73
Christian Democrat parties (Europe)115
Churchill, Winston205
(p.261) citizen activism
growth of179–80
how outsiders can support192–5
importance of195
and markets185–7
and protest183–4
and state support190–2
Citizens UK112, 113, 118
civil society organizations (CSOs)
distinguished from NGOs182–3
as drivers of change116
and government187–90
how outsiders can support192–5
and a power and systems approach249
civil society protests87
Clarkson, Thomas214–15
climate change
and advocacy216, 220, 225
contextual drivers for171–3
Copenhagen Summit (2009)172, 175, 216
and international organizations91
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)142
obstructive powers43, 44
Paris Agreement (2015)44, 91, 108–9, 171–5
and social norms65–7
Climate Vulnerable Forum173
Colombia91–2, 110
complexity in systems10, 15–16
’Concert for Europe’137
consumer pressure167
Control Arms Campaign140–1
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)52–3
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)107–8
corporate lobbying161, 163–4
corporate social responsibility (CSR)166, 167
Costa Rica101, 110, 140, 202
crises, opportunities from16–19
critical junctures
and advocacy226–7
and Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)141
and climate change174
crises as16–19
examples of86
and indigenous identity71
and leadership200
and social norms52, 86
crowd-source websites188
curiosity in a power and systems approach240–1
customary law102–6
democracies90, 114–15 see also non-democratic systems
Democratic Republic of Congo31–2, 182
demonstration projects189
developing countries
and advocacy228
colonization of84–5
and global campaigns224–5
and international organizations224–6
and leadership200–1
states in89–92
and transnational corporations154–5
development3–4, 28–9, 79–83
developmental states89–90, 91
Developmental Leadership Program (DLP)202–4
disability campaigns189
‘Doing Development Differently’ network252
East India Company153
economic growth82, 86, 166
dropout rates25, 51–2
gender gap in53
and leadership202–4
and social norms49
and use of legal system100–1
activism in Cairo180, 184
female genital mutilation (FGM)64
gender rights230
elections, costs of119–20
(p.262) empathy34–5, 221
empowerment28–9, 33–7, 51–3
energy, cost of renewable173
Ethical Trading Initiative167–8, 170, 252, 254
Ethiopia64–5, 89
‘Concert for’137
European Union (EU)212–13
and the evolution of states88
export processing zones (EPZs)185–6
activists hatred of21
of aid-financed state reform92–4
learning from21–2
and a power and systems approach249
Fairtrade Foundation215–16
faith organizations
and advocacy212–13
and civil society organizations194
and climate change66
ignoring of60
and individual empowerment35–6
and leadership207
and politics59–60
and social norms49, 57–60
and women’s rights59–60
farming organizations186–7
feedback20–1, 246, 248–9
female genital mutilation (FGM)62–5
feminine and feminist leadership209
Figueres, José202
financial crisis (2008)52, 144, 148
financial transaction tax (Robin Hood Tax) (Tobin Tax)86, 226–7
food, and activism217
foreign direct investment154, 162
Foreign Office216, 225
fragile and conflict affected states90–1
France105, 174
Friends of the Earth76
‘From Poverty to Power’ blog (Green)128–9, 152
From Poverty to Power: How Active Citizens and Effective States can Change the World (Green)2, 10, 81, 148
Gandhi, Mahatma205–6
garment industry51, 151–2
gender50–3, 143 see also women
Ghana103, 202–4
globalization51, 156, 222
Global Witness159, 252
Google161, 250
and activism228
and civil society organizations187–90
and social norms53–6
support for citizen activism190–2
and transnational corporations162
Great Depression17
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (Rowling)177–8
Hazare, Anna115–16
healthcare, and use of legal system100–1
hidden power29–30
history, importance of for institutions73–8
human rights55, 107–8, 110
humility and change241, 244, 257
humour and advocacy218
hybrid state institutions93–4
ideas42–3, 44, 220
identity, indigenous70–1
ideological bias, and leadership198–9
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) (‘Common Man’s Party’)115–17
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)115
cable television51–2
Chaupal (NGO)219
civil society organizations (CSOs)187–8
climate change174, 216, 225
Congress Party125–6
cost of elections120
education51–2, 53
fishing rights10–11, 16
foreign direct investment162
hidden power30
importance of law96–7
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)125–6
(p.263) producer organizations186–7
Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)187
systems thinking10–11
transnational corporations156
use of legal system98–9
We Can campaign226
women in parliament122
women-only police stations in102
women’s empowerment51–3
individuals, and social norms49
citizen activism181
civil society organizations (CSOs)189
and the evolution of states87
Indonesia Labour Rights Project (ILRP)225
labour rights225
industrial policy15
in access to justice101–2
and civil society organizations182
and financial crisis (2008)52
IMF paper on143
influence, and advocacy216–17, 224
and advocacy215
and the importance of history73–8
and leadership201, 210
and resistance to change41–2, 44
and social norms48–9
and systems15–16
interests43–4, 54–5
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA)140
international agreements52
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development see World Bank
International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo (1994)52
International Criminal Court106, 138, 140
international knowledge networks142
International Labour Organization (ILO)47, 72
international law49, 106–9
International Monetary Fund (IMF)137, 138–40, 142–4, 145, 162
international organizations91, 224–6, 252–4
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)142
international systems
and activism135–6, 147–9
‘hard’ power140–1
‘soft’ power141–5
and the sustainable development goals145–7
and transnational corporations162
Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS)107
invisible power30–1, 33–4
Islam58, 59–60
Islamist parties (Middle East)115, 129
Israel188, 217
Adva Centre (Israel)188
Jubilee 2000 debt campaign34–5, 230–1
justice, inequality in access101–2
Kagame, Paul201–2
Kenya105–6, 119, 120, 128, 129
key players39–40
Kicking Away the Ladder (Chang)76–7
knowledge brokers145
knowledge networks142
‘Kony2012’ campaign222
Labour Party (UK)113–14
labour rights185–6, 225
laissez-faire policies15
Lamb, Harriet215–16
language, and advocacy218
Latin America
children’s rights50, 108
and the evolution of states87
hidden power30
human rights law109–10
rights-based approaches109–10
role of faith57
role of states80
transnational corporations154–5, 157
as a driver of change98–102
enforcement as advocacy219
(p.264) importance of96–7, 110–11
and indigenous movements71–2
and social norms49
as a system109–10
leaders and leadership
actions of204–6
importance of196–200
MacArthur Foundation Fellowship210
pathways to202–4
power and systems209–11
and social norms54
at the top200–2
and women208–9
League of Nations137
learning by doing21–2, 245–6, 249
Lee Kuan Yew201–2
legitimacy, and the evolution of states87
lobbying161, 163–4, 214
Lula (Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)117, 208
‘Make Poverty History’ campaign2, 222–4
Mali93–4, 140, 227
Mandela, Nelson204, 205–6, 208, 209–10, 222
Mander, Harsh98
markets15–16, 185–7
media121, 126–30, 134
Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF)163
Mendes, Chico118
mergers and acquisitions (M&As)248
Mexico88, 156, 162
Partido Revolucionario Institucional115
Middle East62, 115, 129, 141
Milk, Harvey217–18
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)145–6
Mission, The (film)47
Morales, Evo208
multilateral system, evolution136–40
municipal government91–2
Myeni, Kenny204
Mystery of Capital, The (de Soto)13, 104–5
national level, and activism148–9
National Rifle Association141
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) (India)125–6
Community Discussion Classes (CDCs)35–6
networks138, 142, 156, 252
neutrality, of social norms60–2
New Internationalist magazine248
New Zealand114
aid to193
distinguished from CSOs182–3
and individual empowerment35–6
and opportunities from crises18
Nicaragua80, 185–6
Nigeria159, 186
Nike151–2, 225n19
non-democratic systems123–5, 191–2 see also democracies
non-state networks138
normative frameworks see social norms
norms see social norms
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)107
North Korea200
Obama, President172
oil prices, and the free market17
opportunities from crises16–19
Origin of Wealth, The(Beinhocker)13–14, 15–16
Overseas Development Institute99, 209
and advocacy213–14, 220
‘Behind the Brands’ campaign168
campaign on arms control140
Chukua Hatua project22–3
and citizen activism192–3
and climate change111
coalitions and alliances228–9
and critical junctures227, 228–9
and Egyptian Revolution18
ignoring of faith organizations60
(p.265) and indigenous movements72–3
and institutional blockage41–2
lack of adaptation255
‘Make Poverty History’ campaign2, 222–4
measuring impact of TNCs157–8
and the media129
medicines campaign163
and mobile phones for women community leaders122
and national influencing148
need for change258
and power analysis38–9
Raising Her Voice programme226
TajWSS project23–4
water and sanitation project251–2
Pacific Islands174
Aurat Foundation122–3
civil society organizations (CSOs)189, 192
customary law in102
obstructive power of interests43–4
women in parliament122–3
Women’s Leadership Groups122–3
Papal Encyclical on the Environment (2015)66
Papua New Guinea196–7, 200, 204–5
Paris Agreement on climate change (2015)44, 91, 108–9
case study171–5
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005)36
partners, in citizen activism193
patrimonial states90, 91
patronage, and political parties118–21
Penha206–7, 208
People’s Climate March in New York (2014)173
personal empowerment33–7
children’s rights108
racial discrimination28
pharmaceutical industry163–4
Philippines23, 60, 87, 173–4
police behaviour101–2
political parties
and accountability112–13, 134
and civil society organizations187–90
as drivers of change113–18
in non-democratic systems123–5
patronage and corruption118–21
platforms as venues for change125–6
from social movements115–18
and women121–3
Polman, Paul (CEO of Unilever)159–62, 164
positive deviance24–6, 64
of advocacy212–15
analysis of38–41, 44–5
and change32–7
distribution36–7, 45
and gender and social norms50–3
and indigenous identity70–1
invisible30–1, 33–4
multifaceted nature of31–2
systems and leadership209–11
and systems thinking15
types of28–32
with58, 70
within33–6, 45, 58, 70, 193–4, 207
as a zero sum game37
power and systems approach (PSA)
benefits of7–8, 254–5
implications for activist organizations246–50
implications for funders251–2
international activist organizations adapting to252–4
as a theory of change239–46
Power of Positive Deviance, The (Sternin and Sternin)25–6
power vacuum, no such thing as a31–2
precedents, in a power and systems approach242
principles for systems thinking20–4
private sector72, 172–3
producer organizations, and citizen activism186–7
protest movements183–4, 218–19
(p.266) radio, role in accountability128, 129
Raising Her Voice programme226
relationships3, 22, 45
religion see faith organizations
renewable energy, costs of173
research189, 219–20
resistance, to change41–4
response, and a power and systems approach248–9
risk aversion, and activism21
roads, importance of196–7
‘Robin Hood Tax’227
Rodrik, Dani14
Roman Catholic Church, and alliances72
Russia141, 162, 189
developmental state89
voluntary associations181
women in parliament121
Save the Children24–5
Second World War17, 52
security, and role of the state81–2, 86
Senegal64–5, 93–4
services, and foreign direct investment154
Shock Doctrine, The(Klein)17
shocks, use of17
Sierra Leone103, 155–6
Singapore85, 89, 201–2
slavery, campaigning to end214–15
small and medium enterprises (SMEs)152–3
social accountability130–3, 132f, 134
social capital see citizen activism
social franchising248
social media128–9, 222
social movements115–18, 183–4, 194, 207
social norms
and climate change65–7
and corporate behaviour166
and critical junctures86
and culture56–7
evolution of48–50
and faith57–60
and female genital mutilation (FGM)62–5
and gender and power50–3
and government53–6
importance of48
and indigenous identity70–1
and individuals49
and institutions48–9
neutrality of60–2
and women’s rights122
‘Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits’ (Friedman)166
Somalia108, 129
South Africa
access to medicines163
African National Congress (ANC)116, 210
civil society organizations (CSOs)188–9, 190
and the evolution of states87, 88
labour rights186
municipal government91–2
Public Sector Accountability Monitor130
use of legal system99–100
Women in Law Southern Africa (WILSA)227
Women on Farms Project186
South Korea15, 89
South Sudan108
Spain84–5, 105
spin-offs, and a power and systems approach248
Sri Lanka34
stakeholders39–40, 243
aid-financed reform92–4
and appropriate change strategy91–2
centralized administration84
complexity of94–5
in developing countries today89–92
evolution of83–8
and market system15–16
role of79–83
and social norms53–6
structural adjustment policies (1980s)70, 213
success in systems thinking21
Sungi, Joseph196–7, 200, 203, 204–5, 208
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)61–2, 145–7
Swiss Development Agency251
symbolism, and leadership205
(p.267) systems
and change16–19
and complexity10, 15–16
and indigenous identity70–1
and institutions15–16
leadership and power209–11
and power15
in state of constant change12–13
systems thinking
and advocacy222–6
and change26–7
and climate change174–5
definition and context9–13
and economics13–16
and evaluation236
and hybrid institutions94
and insiders vs. outsider tactics229–31
and opportunities from crises16–19
positive deviance24–6
principles for20–4
reflection and planning19–24
and social action236
and theories of change235–9
Tajikistan39–40, 251–2
TajWSS project23–4
Chukua Hatua (Oxfam project)22–3
civil society organizations (CSOs)190
DFID funding of change251
media in130
social accountability130–3
systems thinking22–3
taxation, international227
and citizen activism180
and the role of the media127–9
and transnational corporations165–6
television51–2, 130
Then a miracle occurs (Harris) (cartoon)132f
theories of change2, 235–8, 239–46
‘Thinking and Working Politically’ network252
Thomas, Mark218
Tobin Tax86, 226–7
tone, and advocacy218
tourism1–2, 47–8
Trade Justice Movement214
trade negotiations107, 135–6
trade unions166–7, 185–6, 225
transnational corporations (TNCs)
change in164–7
driving change157–9
as influencers151–3, 159–64
power of169–70
transparency, and accountability initiatives130–3
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index93
Treatment Action Campaign163
trust, and the evolution of states87
‘Kony2012’ campaign222
Unilever157–8, 159–60, 173
United Kingdom
cost of elections120
Department for International Development (DFID)42, 126–7, 215, 251
government spending83
legal system105
role of the state80, 81, 84
transnational corporations156
use of humour in activism218
United Nations (UN)
on access to justice101
civil society organizations (CSOs)182
evolution of137–40
and female genital mutilation (FGM)62–3
‘Human Development Report’143
and social norms48, 60–1, 141–2
and soft power145
Sustainable Development Goals106
and transnational corporations162
UN Conference on Trade and Development138
UN Development Programme (UNDP)138, 139
UN High Commission for Refugees138
UN Programme of Action on Small Arms141
UN Women138
(p.268) United States
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)140
children’s rights108
civil rights movement52
climate change172
cost of elections119–20
dominance of UN139
government spending83
international law107
marriage equality55
opportunities from crises17–18
pharmaceutical industry163
private education17–18
role of the state84
sexual and reproductive rights59
US Marines22
urbanization, and women’s empowerment51
US-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change (2014)172–3
Vanuatu103–4, 157
Vatican City59
Viet Nam
Communist Party of Viet Nam (CPV)123–5
positive deviance in systems thinking24–5
Provincial Governance and Public Administration Performance Index (PAPI)124–5
Vietnam Fatherland Front (VFF)124
violence, against women33–4, 51, 55–6, 61, 100, 104, 227
visible power29
voluntary associations181
war, and the evolution of states17, 85–6
We Can campaign33–4, 37, 53, 226
‘We Mean Business’ coalition175
and citizen activism194
foot-binding of63
government action for53
and leadership208–9
and political parties121–3
and social norms50–3
violence against33–4, 51, 55–6, 61, 100, 104, 227
women’s rights
and citizen activism185–6
and civil society organizations189
and faith59–60
and power33–4
Raising Her Voice programme226
and social norms52–3, 122
Workers Party (PT) (Brazil)115, 116–18, 189
World Bank
Development Economics Vice Presidency (DEC)144
and soft power142, 145
structural adjustment policies (1980s)213
and transnational corporations162
on use of legal system100–1
World Conference on Women in Beijing (1995)52
World Faiths and Development Conference (1998)58
World Health Organization (WHO)62–3, 138
worldviews, on change3
Yes Minister (TV programme)81
Zimbabwe127–8, 141, 200