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Dull Disasters?How planning ahead will make a difference$

Daniel J. Clarke and Stefan Dercon

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198785576

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785576.001.0001

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(p.133) Index

(p.133) Index

Source:
Dull Disasters?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Note: Page numbers in italics are for tables. Glossary page numbers are in bold.

Adam, Christopher95–6
African Risk Capacity (ARC)93, 120 n. 21
African Union93, 107
agricultural insurance8, 45–6, 59, 72–3, 89, 90–1, 97, 98
Alderman, H.28, 73
ALNAP114 n. 6
ambiguities, of begging-bowl financing17–18
appeals for support5, 13, 14, 16, 18–19, 93–4, 115 n. 4
area average index62–3, 64, 109
Armendáriz, B.97
Arrow, Kenneth J.25, 95
Ashraf, Nava70
attribution errors26, 109
Barnett, Barry J.73
Baron, J.115–16 n. 8
Bastagli, Francesca73
begging-bowl financing16–22, 45, 83, 94, 100, 105, 109
ambiguities17–18
and crying wolf18–19
and disaster risk reduction and preparedness21–2
fragmented responses19–20
procrastination and delays18, 21
benefactors6, 16, 20, 21, 27, 29, 32–3, 38, 109
commitment of24, 67
investment in risk reduction45
as leaders101, 104, 106
Berg, M. A.96
Bernatzi, S.70
Bevan, David95–6
Bharosa, Nitesh48
Bhuvanendra, D.73
Borch, K.95
Browne, Mark J.25
Buchanan, James M.25
budget allocations82, 83, 87, 109
budget reallocations82, 84, 93, 107
budget volatility95, 96
‘build back better’39–40, 117 n. 7
bureaucrats35–40, 43, 101
Burkina Faso115 n. 4
business as usual approach2, 9
Buzzacchi, L.71
Cabot Venton, Courtney117 n. 5
CADENA programme, Mexico73
California89, 97
Cambodia114 n. 18
Campbell, L.73
Canada89
capital base80, 109
capital market financial instruments83, 109
Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF)92–3, 120 n. 19
Caribbean Community92, 107
Caribbean Development Bank120 n. 19
Carter, M.73, 97, 98
cash transfers7, 40, 44, 52, 56, 59, 60, 66, 88, 118 n. 13
catastrophe bonds82, 83, 92, 109
Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (DDO)46, 92, 120 n. 18
catastrophe swaps82, 83, 109
Caunhye, Aakil M.49
Chad115 n. 4
Chakravarti, J. S.72
Chantarat, S.73
Charity Hazard25
Charpentier, A.96, 97
Checchi, Francesco113 n. 2
China, famine113 n. 2, 116 n. 12
Christopher, Martin49
(p.134) Clarke, D. J.28, 72–3
climate change1, 34
Coate, S.25
Cochin, India23
co-financing104–5
Cohen, Charles26
Cole, S.27, 97
collective-action problem37, 47–8
Colombia89, 120 n. 18
command and control systems58
commitment24, 30, 31–2, 42, 56, 67
commitment devices54, 55, 70, 96–7, 107
communication
inter-agency48
of scientific findings35
compulsory insurance90, 97, 98
confirmation bias70
conflict/conflict-induced crises10, 113 n. 2, 115 n. 4
contingency budgets15, 16, 82
contingency funds82, 83, 86, 87, 88, 93, 109–10
contingent credit82, 83, 86, 107, 110
contingent debt facilities82
contingent liability41–2, 45, 79–81, 89, 95, 110
contract theory42
Cook Islands120 n. 20
coordination31, 37, 41, 43, 48, 58, 104
coordination failures4–5, 32, 37, 58
Costa Rica120 n. 18
credit, post–disaster82
crisis management, three C’s of13
crop insurance8, 45
crying wolf18–19
Cummins, J. David96, 98
cyclones48, 120 n. 20
Patricia, Mexico (2015)85
Cyprus89
Darfur113 n. 2
data systems60–7, 101
credibility of61
and disaster insurance60–4
early warning65, 101
gaming of60, 61
user-generated66
deaths10, 99, 113 n. 4
Debreu, G.95
decision-making
data systems60–7
evidence-based3, 4
flaws in53–4
political4, 36–7
and present bias70
rules-based8, 11, 55, 57–8, 62–8, 70
and status quo bias70–1
transparency8
delayed response18, 21, 27–8
Democratic Republic of Congo14, 115 n. 4
Dercon, Stefan28, 113 n. 2
development banks4, 92
de Waal, Alex113 n. 2
Dhaka, Bangladesh22–3
disaster relief22, 25–6, 27, 49, 99–100, 103–4
disaster risk finance78, 110
disaster risk management92, 104, 110
disaster risk reduction6, 21–2, 45–6, 48, 61, 71, 85, 96, 103, 110
incentives6–7, 7–8, 9, 26, 68, 88, 100, 106
underinvestment in45, 61, 71
drought18, 19, 28, 33, 56, 65, 66, 68, 99, 120 n. 21
Ethiopia8, 15, 19, 89, 113 n. 2
insurance72, 73, 93
Kenya1, 15, 19, 120 n. 21
Somalia (2011)1, 18, 19, 113 n. 2
early action33, 65, 66–7, 68, 101
early warning systems33, 65, 68, 101
earthquake insurance45, 97
earthquakes13, 33, 58, 63, 65, 92, 99, 120 n. 20
Haiti (2010)1, 4–5, 20, 84, 114 n. 11
Indian Ocean (2004)1
infrastructure reconstruction following57
Kashmir (2005)65
Mexico (1985)75
Nepal (2015)1, 4, 13, 31, 34, 93, 115 n. 2, 115 n. 4
Tohoku118 n. 14
Ebola virus outbreak (2014)1–2, 4, 14–15, 17–18, 19, 20, 34, 58, 65, 68, 101
economies of scale37
Eisenee, Thomas27
Elabed, Ghada97
electoral politics20, 22, 26–7
El Niño18, 33
El Salvador120 n. 18
emergency recovery phase110
emergency relief phase110
(p.135) emotional responses2
Estache, A.71
Ethiopia9, 28, 91, 117 n. 5
drought8, 15, 19, 89, 113 n. 2
famine113 n. 2
funeral societies23, 51–2, 54
indexed insurance protection72, 92
Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP)8, 59, 88–9, 105
evidence-based decision-making3, 4
exaggeration of crises19
ex ante financial instruments82, 83, 84–7, 91, 107, 110
accuracy and speed85, 87
cost85, 86–7
discipline84, 85
ex post financial instruments82, 83–4, 111
extreme weather events1, 18, 33, 114 n. 18
famine65
China113 n. 2, 116 n. 12
Ethiopia113 n. 2
India20
fast-onset disasters9, 13, 65
financial instruments77–8, 82–7, 101
as commitment devices96–7
ex post82, 83–4, 93, 111
risk retention82, 83, 86, 95, 96, 112
risk transfer82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 94, 112 see also ex ante financial instruments
financiers41–2, 43, 101, 107
fire insurance116 n. 21
flood insurance98
floods1, 5, 7, 10, 13, 26, 33, 58, 61, 63, 65, 99
FONDEN (Fondo Nacional de Desastres Naturales), Mexico7–8, 43–4, 75–6, 88, 92, 103
food delivery56, 59–60, 66
Fox, B. D.48
fragmented responses19–20, 41
France89
fraud61, 71–2
frontline workers40–1
Fuchs, Alan27, 73
funeral insurance systems23, 24, 51–3, 54
gambler’s fallacy34
gaming of data systems60, 61
Gasper, J.27
Gawande, A.70
Germanwatch114 n. 18
Ghesquiere, Francis72, 95
Gigerenzer, Gerd70
global humanitarian system4, 111, 114 n. 6
Goldstein, Daniel G.70
Gollier, C.96
Greece89
Grosh, M.73
group-based insurance22–4, 51–3
Guatemala120 n. 18
Guinea, Ebola virus outbreak (2014)2
Gurenko, Eugene98
Haiti114 n. 18, 120 n. 19
earthquake (2010)1, 4–5, 20, 84, 114 n. 11
Haque, T.73
Hardman, Luke73
Hazell, P. B.72
health36–7, 65
health care delivery59
Healy, A.26–7
hidden action25, 111
Hill, R.28, 97
Hobson, M.73
Hoddinott, John114 n. 16
Hölstrom, B.25
homeowners’ insurance59, 103
Honduras114 n. 18
Hoyt, Robert E.25
Hsiang, S. M.48
humanitarian aid2, 5, 14, 31, 48, 111
humanitarian need16
Hunger Safety Net Programme, Kenya7, 40, 88, 103, 105
hurricanes33
Katrina (2005), US5, 7, 17, 20, 31, 98
hyperbolic preferences70
implementation of response plans101
command and control systems58
information systems58
scalable delivery systems59
(p.136) implementers40–1, 43
incentives, disaster risk reduction6–7, 7–8, 9, 68, 88, 100, 106
indemnity insurance62, 82, 111
index-based insurance62–3, 64, 65, 72–3, 83, 90, 92, 97, 111
indexed reinsurance82, 83
India9, 89, 114 n. 18
agricultural insurance8, 72, 73
electoral behaviour22, 27
famine20
funeral insurance23
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)1, 117 n. 7
individual loss adjustment62, 63–4, 87, 111
infectious diseases11, 93 see also Ebola; pandemics
information-processing capacity54
information systems58
infrastructure deficit71
infrastructure reconstruction57, 67, 75–6, 103
in kind support59, 60
insurance5, 7, 8–9, 26, 60–4, 78, 95, 97–8, 107, 119 n. 8
agricultural8, 45–6, 59, 72–3, 89, 90–1, 97, 98
and certainty78
compulsory90, 97, 98
earthquake45
fire116 n. 21
flood98
fraud61, 71–2
funeral23, 24, 51–3, 54
group-based22–4, 51–3
homeowners’59, 103
indemnity62, 82, 111
index-based62–3, 64, 65, 72–3, 83, 90, 92, 97
individual loss adjustment62, 63–4, 87, 111
parametric63, 64, 72–3, 90, 92, 93, 111, 120 nn. 20 and 21
reinsurance8, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 107, 112, 118 n. 3, 119 n. 8
as risk transfer instrument82, 83
subsidized81–2, 89–90, 91–2, 93, 97, 98
underinsurance72
inter-agency communication48
International Development Association (IDA)120 n. 19
International Monetary Fund96
international organizations2, 10, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 30, 36, 68, 84
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement17, 114 n. 6
Iran89
Irish Aid94
Jaffee, D.96, 98
Jamaica96
Janssen, Marijn48
Janzen, S. A.97
Japan89, 104, 117 n. 10
Tōhoku earthquake118 n. 14
Jensen, Nathaniel Duane72
Kahneman, D.70, 117 n. 6
Kaplow, L.25
Kapucu, Naim48
Karlan, Dean97
Kashmir earthquake (2005)65
Kenya8, 72, 91, 117 n. 5, 120 n. 21
drought1, 14, 19, 120 n. 21
Hunger Safety Net Programme7, 40, 59, 88, 103, 105
Kirschner, Charlotte97
Kousky, C.26
Kunreuther, Howard C.96, 97–8
Kydland, Finn E.71
Lacker, J. M.71–2
Lam, J.48
leadership19–20, 101, 104, 106
political19, 20, 29, 68
Le Maux, B.96, 97
Ley-Borrás, R.48
Liberia, Ebola virus outbreak (2014)2
Lindbeck, A.25
Lind, Robert C.95
liquidity, cost of87
local governments4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 17, 30, 37, 39
logistics31, 37, 39, 48–9, 59
loss aversion70, 115 n. 8
losses, disaster99
Lucas, Robert E. Jr.71
Madrian, B.70–1
Mahul, Olivier72, 95, 96, 98
Malawi92
Malhotra, N.26–7
Mali115 n. 4
Marshall Islands120 n. 20
(p.137) Mauritania120 n. 21
media reports2, 13, 14, 19, 20
Mexico9, 27, 43–4, 91
CADENA programme73
Cyclone Patricia (2015)85
earthquake (1985)75
National Disaster Fund (FONDEN)7–8, 43–4, 75–6, 88, 92, 103
Michel-Kerjan, E. O.98
minimal response56, 67
Mitter, Rana113 n. 2
Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq72, 97
moral hazard25, 61, 72, 111
Morduch, J.97
Myanmar114 n. 18
Narita, D.48
national governments4, 13, 14, 15, 16, 30, 36–7, 68, 100, 106
disaster preparedness spending26–7
disaster relief spending26
risk diversification95
risk ownership17, 36, 39
time-inconsistent preferences71
negotiation
post-disaster55–6
pre-disaster37–8
Nepal earthquake (2015)1, 4, 13, 31, 34, 93, 114–15 n. 1, 115 nn. 2 and 4
New Zealand89
New Zealand Earthquake Commission119 n. 15
Nicaragua120 n. 19
Niger115 n. 4, 120 n. 21
Nocco, Brian W.48
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)2, 4, 13, 16, 17, 21, 37,84, 94
Nyakatoke, Tanzania23
O’Donoghue, T.70, 116 n. 8
Odyssean pact32
omission bias116 n. 8
Osborne, M. J.27
Overseas Development Institute and Centre for Global Development118 n. 12
ownership of risks17, 36, 39, 47–8, 68, 79, 85, 101
Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI)93, 120 n. 20
Pacific Community93, 107
Panama89, 120 n. 18
pandemics9, 10, 18, 34, 48, 93, 104 see also Ebola
parametric insurance63, 64, 72–3, 90, 92, 93, 111, 120 nn. 20 and 21
Pauly, M.97–8
Pelham, L.73
pension savings/schemes54, 70–1
Peru89, 120 n. 18
Phaup, Marvin97
Philippines70, 89, 114 n. 18, 120 n. 18
Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)1, 5, 114 n. 11
Picard, P.96
planning, pre-disaster see pre-disaster planning
political decision-making4, 36–7
political leadership19, 20, 29, 68
political statements38–9
politicians2, 13, 17, 21, 29–30, 30, 31, 46, 103
politics21–2
of credible pre-disaster plans30–3
electoral20, 22
Pomeroy, G.97
Porter, Catherine113 n. 2
post-disaster financing5, 11, 15–16, 31, 82, 83–4, 93–4, 105 see also appeals; begging–bowl financing
post-disaster needs assessment31, 111, 118 n. 10
pre-disaster planning3, 5, 6, 7–9, 11, 30–47, 91
bureaucrats and35–40, 43, 101
embracing44–6
financiers and41–2, 43, 101, 107
implementers and40–1, 43
joint declaration by stakeholders39–40
political statements38–9
politics of30–3
scientists and33–5, 43
preparedness21–2, 26–7, 68, 85, 104
Prescott, Edward C.71
present bias70
private goods26
probability/probabilistic models34
procrastination18, 21, 54, 70, 115–16 n. 8
Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP), Ethiopia8, 59, 88–9, 105
Pronovost, Peter70
(p.138) protection
focus on103–4
self-25, 26
public financial management85, 111
public goods26
public health36–7, 65
Public Health Emergency of International Concern111–12
Puri, Jyotsna117 n. 9
Rabin, M.70, 116 n. 8
rainfall-indexed insurance72, 93
rapid-onset disasters9, 13, 65
Raschky, Paul A.25
Reeves, A.27
regional development banks4, 92
reinsurance8, 80, 81, 83, 84, 107, 112, 118 n. 3, 119 n. 8
indexed82, 83
resilience6–7
RISEPAK65
risk-based pricing96, 112
risk diversification95
risk model development34
risk ownership17, 36, 39, 47–8, 68, 79, 85, 101
risk pool24, 112
risk reduction see disaster risk reduction
risk retention80–1, 107
risk retention instruments82, 83, 86, 95, 96, 112
risk transfer80–1, 95, 96–7,98, 107
risk transfer instruments82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 94, 112
Ritov, I.115–16 n. 8
Robinson, W. Courtland113 n. 2
Rodriguez-Chamussy, Lourdes27
Rosenzweig, Mark R.72, 97
Rubinstein, A.27
rules-based decision–making8, 11, 55, 57–8, 62–8, 70
Russell, T.96, 98
Sainath, Palagummi20
Samaritan’s Dilemma25
Samoa120 n. 20
Samuelson, William70, 115 n. 8
satellite imaging66
‘Save More Tomorrow’ programme70
scientists33–5, 43
communication of findings35
risk model development34
seismic activity33
self-protection25, 26
Sen, Amartya20, 116 n. 12
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction117 n. 7
Senegal120 n. 21
Seychelles120 n. 18
Shea, D.70–1
shock-responsive social protection73, 105, 112
Sierra Leone, Ebola virus outbreak (2014)2, 18
Simon, Herbert A.69–70
Skees, J.72
Slater, R.73
slow-onset disasters9, 13, 18, 28, 33, 65
social media13, 66
social protection59, 73
shock-responsive73, 105, 112
Somalia, drought (2011)1, 18, 19, 113 n. 2
Spain89
Sri Lanka120 n. 18
status quo bias54, 70–1, 112, 115 n. 8
Stephenson, Max48
strategic behaviour27–8
Strömberg, David27
Stulz, René M.48
Stutley, Charles98
subsidized insurance81–2, 89–90, 91–2, 93, 97, 98
Swiss Re98
Syria10, 115 n. 4
Taiwan89
targeting, social safety net36, 112
Tatham, Peter49
taxes82, 84, 96
Taylor, John B.71
Thaler, R.70
time-inconsistency70, 71, 96–7
Tōhoku earthquake118 n. 14
Tonga120 n. 20
Townsend, R. M.71
trade-offs, pre-disaster102–3
(p.139) transparency, in decision-making8
triggers56, 60, 64–5, 66–7, 68, 87, 112
tsunamis65, 120 n. 20
Indian Ocean (2004)1, 117 n. 7
Turati, G.71
Turkey89, 120 n. 17
Tversky, Amos117 n. 6
typhoons33
Haiyan (Yolanda), Philippines1, 5,114 n. 11
Uganda14
underfunding16, 18, 19
underinsurance72
underinvestment, in risk reduction45, 61, 71
underwriting30, 112
United Kingdom (UK), Department for International Development88, 94
United Nations4, 13, 17, 84, 115 n. 1
General Assembly Resolution 46/182 (1991)14
United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund93–4
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)17
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)17
United Nations Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)17, 115 n. 4
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)48, 114 n. 17
United States (US)26
electoral politics22, 26–7
Hurricane Katrina (2005)5, 7, 17, 20, 31, 98
Van Asseldonk, M. A.26
Vanuatu120 n. 20
Van Wassenhove, L. N.49
Verdin, J.73
volcanic eruptions33
voluntary contributions5, 16, 18, 24
von Peter, Goetz95
Von Ungern-Sternberg, T.97
voting behaviour27
WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) interventions59
weather index insurance72, 73, 90, 93
Weck-Hannemann, Hannelore26
Weibull, J. W.25
Weinberg, J. A.71–2
Werker, Eric D.26
Wolde Mariam, Mesfin113 n. 2
Wolff, Hendrik73
World Bank4, 48, 92, 97, 98, 105, 120 n. 19
Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option (DDO)46, 92, 120 n. 18
World Food Programme (WFP)17, 92
World Health Organization (WHO)15, 17, 48, 113 n. 4, 115 n. 6
Wren-Lewis, L.71
Zeckhauser, Richard70, 115 n. 8
Zeimpekis, Vasileios49
Zimbabwe28